Mastering Automated Android App Testing

Automated Android App Testing

The ubiquity of smartphones has led to an increasing demand for mobile apps, with an expected CAGR of 14.3% from 2024 to 2030. This rise in number has left the developers on their toes to create a user-friendly, feature-rich and bug-free mobile app. 

To ensure that the mobile app provides a seamless user experience, relevant features, and tick marks all the factors on the checklist, mobile app testing is highly coveted. Mobile app testing can be complex across various platforms, devices, network connections, carriers and security. 

Chances are that you might miss some important parts while doing manual mobile testing. That’s where the automated mobile testing process comes into play. 

Automated mobile app testing is a process that tests all the elements of a mobile app across various devices, internet connections and operating systems. Read this definitive guide as we talk about automated Android app testing, benefits, and best practices for Android app testing. 

What is Android Automation Testing? 

Android Automation app testing is a process that tests various functionalities of Android apps to improve efficiency, accuracy, and speed. It entails testing the app for factors such as performance, features, scalability, security and accessibility. 

Android automation testing is done through Android testing tools. These are the specialized software and frameworks that test these apps on various devices and for various situations like bad connectivity, unexpected crashes and downtime. 

The software records every user action and leaves feedback with errors and fixes. Furthermore, it tests for reliability under pressed situations like low internet connectivity, large user load or a network failure. 

Manual vs. Automated mobile app testing 

Manual testing is a human-driven app testing process where the human testers interact with every feature of the app without making use of any scripts or software. 

Imagine doing the recurring tasks and testing the minute details with no mistakes. This sounds challenging!

That’s why automated app testing outshines manual mobile app testing. Refer to the table below to understand the startling difference between two testing types: 

CriteriaManual TestingAutomated Testing
AccuracyLess High
Turnaround Time Higher testing timeLower test times
Human resources More Less
Technicalities Low level of technicalities requiredHigh level of technicalities required 
Programming knowledge Less required Highly required 
ToolsUnnecessary Necessary 
Efficiency Low High

The table above is evidence of why automated Android testing is a better option than manual app testing. Manual testing relies on human judgment and is great for nuanced testing, while automated testing is faster, more reliable, and suited for repetitive tasks.

Some QA testers also recommend using both ways in tandem to get the best of both worlds. 

Benefits of Automated Android App Testing

Automated app testing offers various benefits to the testers to ensure the mobile app provides a seamless user experience. Here are the benefits of automated app testing: 

  • Cost efficiency: Automated testing is more cost-effective since it saves the human workforce. It identifies the errors at the development stage, which is as cost-effective as when they are identified at the later stage. It also saves time since you can write the scripts and run tests. 
  • Faster app development: By identifying the bugs at an early stage, testers can work with developers to address the issues. Automated testing identifies all the errors within a single check so that you don’t need to perform the tests repeatedly. 
  • Reduced chances of errors: Humans tend to make mistakes and that’s why manual testing is a less viable choice. Testing tools help identify and rectify potential errors, glitches, and inconsistencies within the app.
  • Faster test coverage: Automated tools can seamlessly perform complex scenarios that are hard to test manually. Within a shorter time frame, testers can execute vast test cases and validate for better app functionality. 
  • Improved app security:  These automated testing tools can better assess the vulnerabilities in apps and identify the bottlenecks. Some automated testing tools run detailed security testing that aims to safeguard sensitive data and prevent unauthorized access. 

How to perform Automated Android App Testing step-by-step? 

Next, look into the mindful steps to perform Automated Android App testing. 

Step 1: Set Up Automation Goals

The first step is to set out the automation goals. Decide what you want to achieve through automation. 

Just like app development, app testing is an inevitable step in checking for various elements of mobile apps. Know whether you want to test the app’s functionality, performance, or user interface. Or if you want to test every aspect of your app? 

Ask these questions while you set out these goals: 

  • Will this automation testing save me time?  
  • Does this automation testing help improve my performance, reliability, and app quality? 

The best practice is to create a list of goals and checklists to ensure that you don’t miss any goals. Move ahead with the test cases for which the answer is yes. 

Step 2:  Planning Test Cases 

After setting out the goals, the next step is to use and plan the test cases. Keep in mind that test case planning is not a process to end your product development cycle, but rather a part of the Agile process. 

 Identify the different scenarios and functionalities of your app that need to be tested. Consider some criteria or create a chart for planning. For automation to take place, the test cases can satisfy these criteria: 

  • Repetitive tasks or long processes 
  • Subject to more human error
  • Involves less use of manual intervention and more time-consuming 
  • High error chance
  • Difficult to measure

Conversely, if the test case involves subjective feedback, is open to multiple steps, and is more exploratory, it is not a viable choice for performing automation. The tests that need to be run once are not a good choice for automation testing. 

Step 3: Select Automation Framework 

Once you have jotted down the test cases, choose the automation framework. 

Automation framework sets the rules to perform automation tests. These frameworks give you the best practice for creating your tests. 

There are around six typical automation frameworks for mobile app testing: 

  • Linear Automation Framework: Also known as the record-and-playback framework, the tester doesn’t need to code to create specific functions. Instead, the steps are written in a sequential order and played back and forth. It is considered best for unit tests or simple applications. Linear automation framework involves recording each step, such as navigation, user input, or checkpoints, to play the script and record for testing.
  • Modular-Based Testing Framework: This framework involves testing small test cases or user scenarios. For instance, a large part of application testing is divided into various smaller units. After breaking it down into smaller modules, a test script is created for each, and the scripts are then added in a hierarchical way. 
  • Library Architecture Testing: Similar to modular-based framework, this framework groups similar tasks within the scripts and later groups them as a function. These functions are further grouped into a library. A major advantage is its reusability, which groups the tasks into functions, which are later used by multiple scripts. 
  • Data-driven Framework: It is a testing approach where test input data and the expected outputs are stored in external data sources such as spreadsheets, databases, or CSV files. This framework saves more time as the data is stored externally. 
  • Hybrid Testing Framework: As the name suggests, a hybrid framework is a compilation of two or more frameworks together to perform a test. The two frameworks are integrated to leverage the advantage of one and overshadow the weakness. This is the best framework for agile teams as it offers flexibility and quick results. 
  • Keyword-Driven Framework: A step ahead in the data-driven framework, the keyword-driven framework pairs the external data along with the keywords. The software makes use of different test scripts to access data and the exact keywords. However, these frameworks are usually time-consuming. 

Step 4: Choose the Right Automation Testing Tool

Next, explore and use automation tools that integrate with your chosen framework. These tools can help you write, execute, and analyze test scripts more efficiently. Although not necessarily, some testing tools require one or more frameworks to execute the testing. 

We have listed some of the popular automation testing tools and frameworks below: 

  • TestGrid: TestGrid is an AI-powered scriptless mobile app testing tool that leverages various frameworks. It comes with codeless automation capabilities that make it easy to create and run automated tests, even for the non-techies. 
  • Appium: Appium is an open-source automation tool for testing mobile applications across different platforms like iOS, Android, and Windows. It supports multiple programming languages including Java, Python, JavaScript, and Ruby.
  • Espresso: Powered by Google, Espresso is specifically made for testing Android applications. The test heavily focuses on writing concise, reliable, and UI-driven automated tests for Android apps. 
  • Robotium: Robotium is another testing tool that is designed for testing Android apps for grey and black box testing.  Focused on simulating user interactions, the test records UI actions such as clicking buttons, entering text, and verifying UI elements. 

Want to learn more about Android app testing tools and frameworks? Check out this article for a comprehensive overview.

Step 5: Setting up Your Test Environment

The thing with mobile app testing is it extends to various operating systems and hardware. Different devices may behave differently for an app because of the specific configurations. However, it becomes challenging to test these apps on each of the Android devices and different operating systems (such as various Android versions). 

Some Android testing tools offer tests on real devices testing on cloud with different specifications, models and Android versions. This saves you from the lengthy process of trying and testing through different Android devices manually.

Best Checklist For Android App Testing 

Testers should create a checklist before starting the mobile app testing. While some testing processes may vary depending on the complexity of the app, here’s a general checklist of tasks that you should follow: 

  • Understand your app: Discuss with the developers to learn the ins and outs of your developed app. Know everything such as the pain points, solutions, and the features that it covers. Are they paramount to the customers? By understanding the apps better, a tester can write test scripts and identify potential issues. 
  • Leverage testing tools:  Read and understand the documentation of each testing tool. It is crucial that you are familiar with the automated testing tool and that it can be put into practice. 
  • Stay updated:  Moving on with the trend is crucial. Ensure that you have an understanding of the latest Android trends and what your users like. 
  • Create a test plan: Create a detailed SOP and a well-laid plan for testing your app. A well-laid plan reduces the chances of vagueness and can be picked by various testers. Make sure to include all the scenarios you want and the use of frameworks. 
  • Analyze the results: Create a detailed report of your results and findings. The comprehensive view of your app’s performance makes it easier for developers and other Agile team members to understand the errors. 
  • Perform tests regularly: Last, ensure that tests are performed in regular intervals. While the initial stage of testing fixes most of the errors, you often face new bugs that disrupt the user experience. 

Challenges in Automated Android App Testing 

Automated Android testing poses some unavoidable challenges for developers and testers. Here are the common challenges that testers encounter: 

  • Device Density: There is a vast range of Android device manufacturers, each of which comes with various models and specs. It becomes challenging to test your app on each of these devices. There is a difference in screen size, resolution and controls. Hence, a virtual machine like an emulator can save the day for testers. 
  • Limits on Emulators: While emulators can test the screen size, user experience, and controls, they fail to imitate touchscreen behavior, network connectivity and battery issues. They may also fail to emulate the apps in unexpected conditions. 
  • Vulnerability issues: Some open-source testing tools may be vulnerable to data leaks. This is most common in the cross-platform testing tools like Selenium. Another reason could be poor hosting and the lack of security protocols. It is recommended to choose a secured solution that offers encryption and storage with eminent security protocols. 
  • Writing test scripts: Writing the scripts can be time-consuming and needs technical knowledge. A wrong testing script may also lead to inaccuracies in the results. The best practice is to use a scriptless testing tool for performing the automation. 
  • Inaccessibility: Large organizations and enterprises prefer in-house testing under the supervision of their testers, while they can customize the solutions. Most Android testing tools are available on-cloud and lack the accessibility to offer testing at a large scale.  

Why choose Testgrid for Automated Android Testing? 

TestGrid is an AI-powered Automated Android testing tool that leverages scriptless testing to perform tests. TestGrid tackles the challenges with automated mobile testing by offering some unique features. 

Here’s a look at some features: 

  • Testing on Real Devices: 

To perform tests on real devices, TestGrid offers on-demand real-device tests and does not use emulators. They leverage the real device lab to test these apps on hundreds of real devices, including Samsung, Oppo, Pixel, and more.

TestGrid offers automated cross-browser testing that allows you to build tests in a scriptless manner and have them run automatically across browsers in either parallel or sequence.

  • Scriptless testing:

Scriptless testing makes it easier to perform and run tests without needing any technical assistance. It covers every aspect of testing, such as recording and playback and AI automation to low code/no code testing.

Scriptless testing saves time and effort as the testers can write test cases in English, BDD, and CSV and paste them into the portal to generate test cases. 

  • Private device lab:

TestGrid offers a private device lab that offers on-premise Android app testing. Private lab offers a secured solution with encryption and a firewall. This specialized lab is tailored to perform tests on over 50 devices and browsers simultaneously while integrating with the current workflows. 

You get the flexibility to perform manual or automated tests. For the larger tests, organizations can scale and add as many devices as possible.    


This brings an end to our detailed guide on mastering the automated Android app testing. Automated testing can surely save you time and the hard, labor-intensive work. By offering solutions like Testgrid, developers, and testers can work together to address errors and fix them quickly.

Plus,  TestGrid’s Real Device Cloud offers 100’s of real devices to help users test their mobile apps on the cloud, providing a comprehensive and realistic testing environment.

As the mobile app market continues to dominate, automated Android testing will become crucial for developers. Testing your mobile apps at an early stage can improve performance and usability. Test Grid excels in Android app testing with its unique scriptless and no-code automation testing feature while testing the apps on real devices. 

Further, the cross-browser and visual testing capabilities of TestGrid make it a unique solution for the testers. 


  1. Can you automate every aspect of mobile application testing?

Ans: Most scenarios and aspects can be performed automatically, some require human intervention. 

  1. What is scriptless Android automation testing?

Ans: Scriptless testing does not involve the need to write scripts or heavy codes for testing. Without needing assistance from developers, testers can seamlessly write the testing steps instead of writing the actual code. 

  1. What are the types of testing in Android? 

Ans:  There are eight Android testing types including unit testing, functional testing, integration testing, UI testing, performance, security testing, localization testing and memory leak testing. 

  1. Why mobile automation testing is needed? 

Ans: Mobile automation testing is required to automate repetitive tasks and speed up the test cycles. Automated testing reduces the human efforts, delivers accurate and quick results and reduces the testing time by up to 98%.